NYU Stern School of Business

Undergraduate College

C60.0001.005: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FROM OPERATIONS

Fall 2010

Instructor Details

Riccio, Lou

lriccio@stern.nyu.edu

Tuesday, 9:45-10:30 AM

8-191 KMC

 

Course Meetings

TR, 9:30am to 10:45am

Tisch T-UC24


Final Exam:  Tuesday, December 21, 8:00 AM - 9:50 AM

Schedule exceptions
    Class will not meet on: Thursday, November 25 (Thanksgiving Break)
    Class will meet on:  Tuesday, December 14 (Last class before final)

 

Course Description and Learning Goals

 

What are the Goals of the Course?


What Is This Course About?

 

Course Pre-Requisites

Core Course: none

 

Course Outline

 

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FROM OPERATIONS

 

MODULE 1: Introduction to Operating Systems -
Process Design and Analysis

 

SESSION 1:   INTRODUCTION – OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Class Plan:  In this session we discuss the course contents, and discuss other details. The main themes in this session are: what are business processes, how operations management involves the design, planning, and management of business processes, and how operations is a source of competitive advantage for a firm.

Homework (for next class):

  1. Begin reading “The Goal” by E.M. Goldratt. You should finish it by Session 5.
  2. Read “Terms Used In Operations Management” and “Analysis Of An Operation.”
  3. Read “Process Flow Analysis” and answer the questions about Tuffy Bikes (handout.)

 

SESSION 2:  PROCESS ANALYSIS: PROCESS CAPACITY AND PROCESS COST, TIME, VARIETY

Class Plan:  In this and the next session, we learn to analyze a business process in detail. The objectives of the analysis are: identify the process capacity, process cost, and time to serve customers. Additionally, understand how to execute orders, schedule labor, and identify bottlenecks.

Using a simple setting, we pick up useful tools and techniques such as capacity calculations, throughput time calculations, work assignment, and scheduling.

Together, the sessions provide insights into capacity management techniques that are used every day in businesses.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

Read, analyze and be prepared to discuss the Kristen's Cookie Company case utilizing the six key questions at the end as guides.  In your submitted report, answer the following questions:

  1. Draw two Gantt charts for Kristen's operation, one assuming all orders are for one dozen cookies with orders coming every 10 minutes exactly, and the second assuming orders are for two-dozen cookies with orders coming every 20 minutes. Assume Kristen’s roommate is helping.
  2. What are the cycle time, throughput time, and capacity of each operation and the whole production system for each case?

Read Supplement 7: Capacity Planning p. 285-306

 

SESSION 3:   PROCESS ANALYSIS: PROCESS CAPACITY AND PROCESS COST, TIME, VARIETY

Class Plan:   We will review Kristen’s Cookies. Be prepared to put your charts on the board if asked. We will also briefly touch upon process improvement. We come back to the strategy of the firm and the design of the process. In this session, we will begin to understand how factors such as lot size and product variety affect the capacity of an operation. We shall link these ideas back to the book "The Goal."

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:   A case report for National Cranberry. The case and questions will be provided.

Read Chapter 7: Process Strategy (p. 253-284)

 

SESSION 4:   PROCESS DESIGN AND FIRM STRATEGY

Class Plan:  We will review National Cranberry. We continue the discussion of analyzing business processes and determining process performance such as capacity, throughput, and cycle time.

Also we will discuss the design of business processes and determine on what basis we should be making design decisions. We will discuss business strategy and its implications on operations design and process choice.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Read, analyze, and be prepared to discuss the Benihana of Tokyo case. Use the following study questions as an aid in analyzing the case.  Submit a report answering these questions:

(a) Draw a process flow diagram of Benihana as an operating system. List the relevant inputs, process, and output elements in three columns.

(b) How does the operating system support the Benihana concept?

(c) Which parameters of the operating system influence the throughput of a Benihana restaurant?

(d) How does the cost structure of a Benihana restaurant compare with that of a typical American restaurant? How does Benihana get its competitive advantage?

(e) What is the proper relationship between the number of tables in the dining room and number of seats in the bar? Explain.

Related Links:  Benihanahttp://www.benihana.com/

 

SESSION 5:   OPERATING SYSTEMS – PROCESS CHOICE AND IMPLICATION FOR OPERATIONAL VARIABLES

Class Plan:  In this session, we discuss the strategy of Benihana. We shall observe how various elements of the operations strategy of Benihana come together to support its business strategy. This will enable us to identify the key factors that determine success and failure from an operations viewpoint for this chain of restaurants.

Also in this session we will continue to discuss process choice. Two of the variables that affect the choice of a process are volume and variety. The choice of process goes beyond determining whether to mass produce or make by hand. It also influences the labor skills, the degree of automation, the controls used, the IT and information systems, etc. We study service operations to see if they have special characteristics that are different from manufacturing operations. For service operations, the key factors are the degree of customization versus the intensity of labor.

Prepare For Next Class:     Read Chapter 3 Project Management p. 53-101

 

MODULE 2: Time-to-Market & Responsiveness


SESSION 6:  TIME BASED COMPETITION

Class Plan:  Competing based on time means being able to execute large projects, on time and within cost. In this session we first discuss the value of time-based competition.

Then, in this and the next session, we learn about network techniques for planning and managing large projects. Successful project management involves planning and managing the time to complete the project, monitoring the use of resources during project execution, and increasing the probability of successful completion. Network planning and control techniques provide the tools necessary for undertaking these tasks.

Prepare and Submit for Next Class:

  1. Submit: The network for the Allied Distributing exercise (no need to analyze beyond drawing the network). This is a difficult problem. Do not get frustrated.

Related Links:  Not all projects are successful. The links below contain examples of major engineering project failures in the last century.

DenverAirport

http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/dsvp_gr/roxby/ee4a3/Lecture2/index.htm

http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/alter/student/useful/ch13denver.html

Challenger

http://www.tsgc.utexas.edu/archive/general/ethics/shuttle.html

http://history.nasa.gov/sts51l.html

Other failures

http://www.cds.caltech.edu/conferences/1997/vecs/tutorial/Examples/Cases/failures.htm

 

SESSION 7:  PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Class Plan:   We will discuss the probabilistic methods for project analysis.  We will also touch upon project crashing. We will learn why it is sometimes beneficial to reduce the duration of a project, even though it may increase the cost of the project. We will discuss project crashing techniques that optimally reduce the duration of a project by selectively reducing the duration of only certain activities.

Prepare and Submit for Next Class:

  1. Read, analyze and be prepared to discuss the other project management network cases (exercises) : FCN (A), FCN (B), FCN (C) in Case Book -  Specialty Contractors, and Aerospace Components – Handed Out.
  2. Submit an analysis and solution to the FCN (B) case.

Related Links:  Please visit the website of Primavera http://www.primavera.com/ to see examples of the state-of-art network planning tools.

 

SESSION 8:  REVIEW/INTRODUCTION TO QUEUEING THEORY

 

SESSION 9IN CLASS EXAM #1

 

SESSION 10:   THE EFFECTS OF UNCERTAINTY - WAITING LINES

Class Plan: 

Recall Pete's people (The Goal) who were trying to beat the robot? Demand and supply often do not match. The mismatch creates special problems for managers. To understand these problems it is important to understand the time-scale at which these uncertainties happen. Very long and gradual changes in demand can be dealt with using techniques for managing seasonal demand. Medium term uncertainties, such as day-to-day fluctuations in demand levels, can be dealt with using staffing solutions and overtime. Demand uncertainties on the same time scale as operational variables such as processing time or set-up time need special techniques. These techniques are called waiting line or queuing techniques. We learn a bit about the other two and lot more about the waiting line techniques in this and the next session.

We learn how variability in processing times and arrival patterns create delays. These delays are due to queues. We learn why queues form? How to estimate the queuing delays? How to plan to extra capacity to reduce unwanted delays? And how to reduce uncertainty?

Prepare For This Class:

  1. Read Quantitative Module D Waiting Line Models (p. 753-778)
  2. Be prepared to discuss the sixteen discussion questions at the end of Module D. Do not submit.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Submit the solutions to problems D3, D7, D9 and D11 in H&R (p. 776-778).

 

SESSION 11:   QUEUEING THEORY IN ACTION

Class Plan:  We apply waiting line techniques to analyze the First City National Bank case. In particular, we discuss whether single lines are better than multiple lines, whether and when specialization using dedicated servers is preferred, as well as, several psychological factors that affect the perception of "waiting" in lines.

Prepare and Submit For The Next Class:

  1. 1.Read, analyze, and be prepared to discuss the First City National Bank case. Submit a case report. The following study questions will help:
  2. Considering the data supplied for arrival and service times, how would you calculate an average arrival rate and service rate?
  3. As Mr. Craig, what characteristics of this queuing system would you be most interested in observing?
  4. What is the best number of tellers to use?
  5. Calculate the waiting time for a customer (time spent in the queue before service) and determine which of the two line configurations you would recommend. Support your result with the appropriate quantitative queuing analysis.

 

SESSION 12:   AN INTRODUCTION TO SIMULATION

Class Plan:  We will complete Queuing with a discussion of First City National Bank.

Simulation is a useful tool to study processes. It is widely used in practice to answer different types of questions, such as, what should be the configuration and capacity of facilities, what scheduling rules should be used, how should due-dates be assigned to customer orders, how does yield impact process performance etc. In this session we shall learn about discrete event simulation. The technique will be applied to simulate alternate waiting line rules in the FirstCityNational case.

Prepare For This Class:

  1. Read Quantitative Module F in H&R on simulation (p. 785-806).
  2. Discussion questions 1,2,4,5,7,10,11,12 and 13 H&R. (p. 798)

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Prepare and submit problem F.1 H&R (p.456)

Related Links:  A simulator add-in to Excel: Crystal Ballhttp://www.crystalball.com/

 

SESSION 13:   USE OF SIMULATION AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TOOL FOR OPERATING SYSTEMS

Class Plan:  We will cover Monte Carlo Simulation techniques and their application to a variety of operations problems.

Submit 1 and Prepare for Discussion 2 and 3 For Next Class:

  1. Consider the First City National Bank case again. By hand, simulate and submit 25 arrivals (track them through the bank) using the interarrival time distribution and service time distribution given in the case, with three tellers, for each of the two line arrangements. Identify assumptions that are necessary.
  2. Consider the First City National Bank case again. What are the advantages of using simulation to study this operation? What are the limitations?
  3. Which alternative arrangement of teller lines should Mr. Craig select based on the simulations?


Related Links:  Arenais an industrial strength simulation software. You can read more about it at: http://www.arenasimulation.com/

 

MODULE 3: Managing for Competitive Advantage -
Quality as a Strategic Issue

 

SESSION 14:   QUALITY – ITS DEFINITION AND BASIS FOR COMPETITION

Class Plan:  We apply simulation to study alternative scheduling rules in the First City National Bank case. We also discuss other applications of simulation, such as, to project management and analysis of cash flows.

In this session we introduce quality management concepts. The objectives of the session are to understand what is quality, what are the costs associated with it, and raise questions about managing quality in the age of super-mass production.

Preparation For Next Class:

  1. Read Chapter 6 Managing Quality (p.191-219).
  2. Prepare discussion questions 5, 9, 11, and 12 at the end of Chapter 6.


Related Links:

SUVs: http://www.fordvehicles.com/suvs/http://www.fordvehicles.com/suvs/

Tires: http://www.firestone.com/http://www.firestone.com/

The Government Regulators: http://www.nhtsa.org/

The W. Edwards Deming Institute: http://www.deming.org/

The Juran Institute: http://www.juran.com/main.html

 

SESSION 15:   QUALITY ANALYSIS, MEASUREMENT AND IMPROVEMENT


Class Plan:  In this session we learn about the two faces of quality. What does a customer want? What can a process deliver? And, how to manage their interaction? We shall discuss useful quality management tools, such as, the fishbone chart, Pareto analysis, and process control charts. We will also learn about six-sigma quality.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Read the Ford-Firestone case and be prepared to discuss it. In particular attempt to determine what was the true cause of the problem?
  2. Prepare and submit a fishbone diagram showing the probable causes for the tire failure problem (as set out in the case). A fishbone diagram shows probable causes for a problem such as: due to manufacturing, materials, design etc.

Read Supplement 6: Statistical Process Control (p. 221-252)

Related Links:

Total Quality Mgmt:Lib.upm.edu.my/iistqm.html

Integrated Quality Dynamics, Inc: www.iqd.com

Six Sigma at GE:  http://www.ge.com/sixsigma/

 

SESSION 16:   STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL

Class Plan:  In this session we learn about statistical process control. We discuss how statistical process control techniques are used in many different industries.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class

  1. Submit problems S6.6, 6.9, S6.19 and S6.21 (p.244-250).
  2. Read, analyze and be prepared to discuss the quality control issues in the South Tree Electronics case.
  3. In analyzing South Tree's quality control problem the following study questions may help:
  4. Indicate on the process diagram, all current inspection points and note the accumulated cost and yield of each operation and test in the process.
  5. How many circuits must you start with to achieve the desired output level?
  6. At what yield rate would you be indifferent between continuing and discontinuing the first inspection in the process?
  7. Calculate and submit the cost of a good S-39 circuit. Show all work.


Related Links:  Visit the American Quality Control Society's http://www.asq.org/ website.

 

SESSION 17:   QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Class Plan:  In this class, we learn about quality improvement through yield analysis.

We will also have a review for the exam.

 

SESSION 18:    IN CLASS EXAM #2

Preparation For Next Class:

  1. Read Chapter 12 (p. 474-513)

 

MODULE 4: Managing for Competitive Advantage -
Inventory Concepts and Models


SESSION 19:  INVENTORY / LOGISTICS

Class Plan:

In this and the next two sessions, we discuss inventory management and more broadly supply chain management. Material, information and funds flow through supply chains. Demand is matched with supply, orders with fulfillment, and products are planned to fill customer needs and to compete against other products in the market. The integrated management of the three flows, material, information, and funds, is called supply chain management. We learn how firms compete using new principles of supply chains. We also learn how inventory, one of the fundamental levers for managing supply chains, can be analyzed and managed.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Read and analyze the Xenon Drives case (to be distributed in class). Be prepared to discuss questions 1, 2, 4 and 6.
  2. Answer and submit question 1 above.

Related Links:

I2:  http://i2.com

SAP:  http://www.sap.com/solutions/scm/

KMART files for bankruptcy:  http://money.cnn.com/2002/01/22/companies/kmart/

 

SESSION 20:   THE ROLE OF INVENTORY – Advanced Inventory Modeling

Class Plan:  In this session we explore the effect of centralization on inventory costs. We see how scale economies can be derived even in very ordinary situations. We then discuss alternate ways of deriving these scale advantages.

Prepare And Submit For Next Class:

  1. Pick up assignment problems to be solved and submit.
  2. Read Chapter 11 and the Supplement to Chapter 11 in H&R (p. 429-471).
  3. Read and be prepared to discuss the Dell Direct case (to be distributed in class).
  4. Answer the following questions

What are the operational factors that contribute to Dell’s competitive advantage?

In your opinion, what should Dell do to keep their competitive advantage?

 

SESSION 21:  INVENTORY MANAGEMENT – THE SUPPLY CHAIN VIEW – MATCHING DEMAND AND SUPPLY

Class Plan:  Dell has been enormously successful in its direct sales operations. It has also managed to successfully transform itself into a web-based sales company. We discuss how it is so successful at what it does and whether other firms in the same or different industries can replicate its model and recipe for success?

Preparation for Next Class:

  1. Read Beer Game Material

Related Links:  Dell: http://www.dell.com/

 

SESSION 22:  INVENTORY IN ACTION: THE BEER GAME

          PLEASE BE A FEW MINUTES BEFORE TIME !!
 

Related Links:  What is systems dynamics?http://www.albany.edu/cpr/sds/
 

SESSION 23:  JUST-IN TIME and LEAN PRODUCTION

Class Plan:  We debrief the beer game and discuss how firms manage to smooth product flows in supply chains. We conclude Module 4 with a discussion of Just-in-Time production systems. We learn the key operating principles behind such systems. We also learn about the firms that have adopted such production systems.

Preparation For This Class:

  1. Read Chapter 16 Just-in-Time systems (p. 625-652).
  2. Discussion questions 1,4,5,6,8,9 and 10 H&R (p. 646).

Related Links:

Lean Operations: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/om/under_cafo/Seshadri/allrefs.htm - lean_operations


MODULE 5: Allocating Resources for Strategic Capacity Planning

SESSION 24:  THE BASIC LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP) PROBLEM 

Class Plan:  We begin the last module which is integrative in nature. It deals with the use of linear programming for planning and optimizing systems. We shall discuss several applications of LP to Operations Management problems.

Preparation:

  1. Read Quantitative Module B: Linear Programming in H&R (p. 691-704).
  2. Prepare todiscuss questions 1,2,3,7,8 and 9 H&R (p.712).
  3. Attempt Problem B.1 on page 713.
  4. Be sure you get the handout with extra problems.

Related Links:

Linear Programming and other Operations Research Topicshttp://www.informs.org/Resources

 

SESSION 25:  SOLUTION TECHNIQUES: GRAPHICAL METHOD AND ENUMERATING THE CORNER POINTS

Class Plan:  We learn how to solve LP problems by hand using a graphical technique. We also learn to carry out sensitivity analysis.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Solve problems B.2 and B.3 on page 352 using (a) graphical method, (b) "enumerating the corner points" method and (c) Excel. Submit.
  2. Interpret the results.

Related Links:  Visit the website of Ilog and look under OPL Studio. http://www.ilog.com/

 

SESSION 26:   LP SOLUTION (EXCEL INTERPRETATION)

Class Plan:  We learn how to formulate and solve LP problems using Excel. How to interpret Excel outputs for LP problems.

Prepare and Submit For Next Class:

  1. Read, analyze, and be prepared to discuss the Otto Development Corporation case. Submit a case report.

Related Links:   Linear Programming and other Operations Research Topics: http://www.informs.org/Resources

 

SESSION 27:   USING THE LP MODEL

Class Plan:  We shall apply LP techniques to analyze the Otto Development Corporation case. The case can be downloaded, see below.

Related Links:  Operations Research Societyhttp://www.informs.org/

 

SESSION 28:  COURSE REVIEW

OVERVIEW OF ASSIGNMENTS WITH DUE DATES

SESSION DUE

HOMEWORKS DATE DUE
2 Tuffy Bikes  
3 Kristen’s Cookies  
4 National Cranberry  
5 Benihana  
7 Allied Distributing  
7 FCNB(B)  
11 Queuing Problems  
12 First City National Bank  
13 Simulation Problem  
14 Simulate FCNB  
16 Ford Firestone  
17 Quality Control Problems  
17 South Tree  
20 Xenon  
21 Inventory Problems  
23    
25 LP Problems  
26 B.2,B.3  
27 Otto Development  

 

Required Course Materials

1.  CUSTOM TEXT:      COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FROM OPERATIONS, Pearson Custom Publishing.

This customized text was prepared by Pearson Custom Publishingfor Stern students. It will be denoted as H&R in the outline. Consecutive page numbers in the top center of the book will used to refer to materials from the book. 

2.  CASE and READINGS PACKET

3.  THE GOAL: A process of ongoing improvement, Third revised edition (buy in bookstore), Eliyahu Goldratt, North River Press Publishing Corporation. 2004.

 

Assessment Components

GRADING

Class Participation, Attendance, Quizzes                 10%

Examinations (Open book)                                       60%

Homework                                                                30%

 

HOMEWORK

You will be assigned homework on a class-to-class basis for each topic. The homework assignments are due on the dates (sessions) where the assignments appear in the syllabus. Only homeworks that are specifically designated as submit are to be handed-in at the beginning of class. Please keep a copy of all homework submitted for reference during class. You may be asked to come to the front of the room to explain your work.

Homework will be graded, and will not be accepted late. They must be prepared individually in order to receive credit. Please write clearly or word process your homework.

 

QUIZZES

A quiz might be given in any class. The quiz will relate to the class material of that day. You are expected to come to class.

 
HOW TO PREPARE FOR CLASS DISCUSSIONS

Please read the cases carefully. Use the study questions supplied in the syllabus as a guide. Be prepared to be called-upon to present the facts of the case, to come to the board to present charts, or to carryout the analysis indicated by the study questions.

 

HOW TO PREPARE A CASE REPORT

Case reports should be concise, no more than 2 pages of written material. You may attach charts, diagrams or data to that two-page report. Your report should answer all questions either specified.

 

EXAMS

There will be two in-class, open book, open note exams and a final exam. Each will be worth 20% of your final grade.

 

Group Projects

Guidelines for Group Projects

Business activities involve group effort. Consequently, learning how to work effectively in a group is a critical part of your business education.

Every member is expected to carry an equal share of the group’s workload. As such, it is in your interest to be involved in all aspects of the project. Even if you divide the work rather than work on each piece together, you are still responsible for each part. The group project will be graded as a whole:   its different components will not be graded separately. Your exams may contain questions that are based on aspects of your group projects.

It is recommended that each group establish ground rules early in the process to facilitate your joint work including a problem-solving process for handling conflicts. In the infrequent case where you believe that a group member is not carrying out his or her fair share of work, you are urged not to permit problems to develop to a point where they become serious. If you cannot resolve conflicts internally after your best efforts, they should be brought to my attention and I will work with you to find a resolution.

You will be asked to complete a peer evaluation form to evaluate the contribution of each of your group members (including your own contribution) at the conclusion of each project. If there is consensus that a group member did not contribute a fair share of work to the project, I will consider this feedback during grading.

 

Grading

At NYU Stern we seek to teach challenging courses that allow students to demonstrate their mastery of the subject matter.  In general, students in undergraduate core courses can expect a grading distribution where: 

Note that while the School uses these ranges as a guide, the actual distribution for this course and your own grade will depend upon how well you actually perform in this course.

 

Re-Grading

The process of assigning grades is intended to be one of unbiased evaluation. Students are encouraged to respect the integrity and authority of the professor’s grading system and are discouraged from pursuing arbitrary challenges to it.

If you believe an inadvertent error has been made in the grading of an individual assignment or in assessing an overall course grade, a request to have the grade re-evaluated may be submitted. You must submit such requests in writing to me within 7 days of receiving the grade, including a brief written statement of why you believe that an error in grading has been made.

 

Professional Responsibilities For This Course

Attendance

 

Participation

In-class contribution is a significant part of your grade and an important part of our shared learning experience. Your active participation helps me to evaluate your overall performance.
You can excel in this area if you come to class on time and contribute to the course by:

 

Assignments

 

Classroom Norms

 

Stern Policies

General Behavior
The School expects that students will conduct themselves with respect and professionalism toward faculty, students, and others present in class and will follow the rules laid down by the instructor for classroom behavior.  Students who fail to do so may be asked to leave the classroom. 

 

Collaboration on Graded Assignments
Students may not work together on graded assignment unless the instructor gives express permission. 

 

Course Evaluations
Course evaluations are important to us and to students who come after you.  Please complete them thoughtfully.

 

Academic Integrity

Integrity is critical to the learning process and to all that we do here at NYU Stern. As members of our community, all students agree to abide by the NYU Stern Student Code of Conduct, which includes a commitment to:

The entire Stern Student Code of Conduct applies to all students enrolled in Stern courses and can be found here:

Undergraduate College: http://www.stern.nyu.edu/uc/codeofconduct
Graduate Programs: http://w4.stern.nyu.edu/studentactivities/involved.cfm?doc_id=102505

To help ensure the integrity of our learning community, prose assignments you submit to Blackboard will be submitted to Turnitin.  Turnitin will compare your submission to a database of prior submissions to Turnitin, current and archived Web pages, periodicals, journals, and publications.  Additionally, your document will become part of the Turnitin database.

 

Recording of Classes

Your class may be recorded for educational purposes

 

Students with Disabilities

If you have a qualified disability and will require academic accommodation of any kind during this course, you must notify me at the beginning of the course and provide a letter from the Moses Center for Students with Disabilities (CSD, 998-4980, www.nyu.edu/csd) verifying your registration and outlining the accommodations they recommend.  If you will need to take an exam at the CSD, you must submit a completed Exam Accommodations Form to them at least one week prior to the scheduled exam time to be guaranteed accommodation.

 

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